Nobody can deny the importance of water
in our life. Nobody in the world can sustain living without water. Water is used everywhere including houses, schools, industries,
as well as agriculture. In other words, life cannot proceed without water. Yet, do you believe that there are some places
that suffer from water scarcity? Do you believe that there are some nations who barely find water to drink? This is exactly
the situation in Benekot where dead rates are increasing and diseases are spreading due to limited water resources. In fact,
water resources in Benekot are a spring that is located above the village and unutilized underground water. Because we-engineers-
are problem solvers who aim to serve humanity and civilize the world, we have decided to take the initiative and design an
efficient water pumping and storage system so as to help Benekot to have water stockpile for the future and supply water to
every place in Benekot.
To begin with, people in Benekot suffer
a lot because of water scarcity. For example, people cannot use water in their homes for cleaning and washing as they need
because there are no taps, showers, or pipes. Also, there are no industries in Benekot because industries need huge amounts
of water. Additionally, agriculture is affected since water is not sufficient to irrigate plants and raise animals. Most importantly,
there is no way for people to store water and use it in months of no monsoon. As a result, Benekot is chained by poverty.
The reason behind water scarcity is that the spring is not enough to satisfy the overall demand, not to mention that the underground
water is not utilized because there are no advanced tools to pump it from the ground.
Above all of these are the difficulties to transfer water from water resources to Benekot, as people must walk for
long distances and climb the mountain in order to bring water from the spring.
In order to solve this serious problem,
we have decided to construct a storage tank that collects water from the spring and store it for future purposes. In order
to have an efficient design, the storage tank must be placed at a close elevation to that of the spring so as to absorb water
easily and quickly from the spring using the smallest pipe diameter and length (David A.Chin, 2006). Also, the tank must be
large enough to accommodate all water needed for the future based on the maximum daily annual demand and the population growth
rate in the village. Actually, the storage level is always assigned as 30% of the maximum daily annual water demand. Besides,
the optimum length of the pipe between the spring and the storage tank will be determined to minimize the cost and reduce
the pressure head loss due to friction between water particles and the pipe as possible (David A.Chin, 2006). One might argue that building dams is better than building
storage tanks because they cost less and don’t need a lot of maintenance. Yet, since the main water resource in the
village is the spring which is located above the village, constructing a storage tank is better because it will absorb water
directly and quickly from the spring using short pipes, whereas transferring water from the spring to the dam that must be
constructed below the level of the village requires using long pipes due to the large difference in elevation between the
spring and the dam. As a result, the cost of the project increases because pipe cost increases as its length increases.
The second step is to design the pipe
system. This step includes choosing the pipes diameter as well as the pumps that are needed to supply water to houses and
absorb the underground water. “The most important factor in water supply is the pressure in the pipes.” (David
A.Chin, 2006, p.177). After doing the analysis on the village, we found that the pressure must range between 50psi and 80psi
so as water can flow smoothly; otherwise, “water will either flow quickly or slowly depending on the value of pressure”
(David A.Chin, 2006, p.178). In fact, the value of the pressure depends mainly on the friction between water particles and
the pipe. “It was proved from empirical formulas that friction is inversely proportional to the pipe diameter meaning
that the larger the pipe diameter, the smaller the friction and the smaller the loss in pressure.” (Clayton T. Crowe,
2005, p. 264) Hence, if we found that the pressure is too high, we have to increase the diameter of the pipe giving that we
will select the most optimum diameter since the cost of pipes increases as the diameter increases. “Regarding pumping
the underground water, a borehole will be dug in the ground; then, a submersible pump will attract the underground
water.” (Donald P.Coduto, 1999, p.200) One might argue that pumps are very expensive,
not to mention that it is difficult for people in Benekot to repair these pumps in case they get damaged. However, pumps can
pump the underground water which was neglected and not utilized before. Also, these pumps are marked by their long service
life (Comprehensive pump range offers extended service life, 2007), not to mention that people in Benekot will be educated after the service life of these pumps
ends. Hence, they will be able to repair them.
In conclusion, designing a water pumping and storage system in Benekot is the road toward
overcoming the problem of water scarcity because it will help Benekot to
have water stockpile for the future and supply water to every place in Benekot. It is true that the project might cost
a lot, but if we look to the long term future, we will notice that water availability will improve agriculture, run some industries,
and help to raise animals. In other words, it will generate many income sources for Benekot leading to the improvement in
the life quality there. Finally, we are looking forward to your support.
David A.Chin. 2006. Water Resources Engineering. 2nd ed. New
Jersey: Saddle River,
Clayton T. Crowe. 2005. Engineering Fluid Mechanics. 8th ed. New Jersey: Saddle River, New Jersey
1999. Geotechnical Engineering Principles. New Jersey: Saddle River, New Jersey
Comprehensive pump range offers extended service life.
2007, April 7. Retrieved on 20th May, 2006 from http://www.aquaticeco.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/listings.categories/ssid/330